Subjective Refraction and Prescribing Glasses: The Number One (or Number Two) Guide to Practical Techniques and Principles, Third Edition is designed as a complete guide to those essential skills, offering everything from basic terminology to tips, tricks, and best practices. This updated Third Edition has been expanded in every section with thoughtful, practical advice, and has case scenarios, in a question and answer format, of situations encountered with real-world patients. It is the most comprehensive review of clinical subjective refraction to date.
Drs. Richard Kolker and Andrew Kolker together have nearly 50 years of experience in the practice of ophthalmology and bring both the fresh eyes of a beginning ophthalmologist and the experience of a seasoned veteran to this Third Edition. While new residents and technicians will appreciate the thorough explanation of refractive fundamentals, even expert ophthalmologists will appreciate the practical tips that may have never occurred to them.
- Very clear, easy-to-read, practical explanations of the subjective refraction process
- Basic practical optics to explain the steps of subjective refraction
- The Jackson Cross Cylinder made easy to understand and use
- Plus and mInus cylinder methods discussed separately and color coded for quick identification
- An Appendix with a primer on retinoscopy and how to use the manual lensometer
- The art of subjective refraction and prescribing glasses
Subjective Refraction and Prescribing Glasses: The Number One (or Number Two) Guide to Practical Techniques and Principles, Third Edition is the definitive guide to the often neglected skills involved in clinical subjective refraction. Residents and technicians will find it a critical guide in their learning process, but even seasoned ophthalmologists can benefit from the tips and tricks enclosed within.
Dr. Kolker has taught refraction at the American Academy of Ophthalmology and the Joint Commission of Allied Health Personnel in Ophthalmology Annual Meetings.
His awards include the Wilmer Resident Teaching Award, the Wilmer Medical Student Teaching Award (three-time recipient), the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing Nurse Practitioner Program Best Course of Year Award (two-time recipient), and the University of Maryland School of Nursing Nurse Practitioner Program Best Course of Year Award.
Dr. Kolker’s hobbies include teaching refraction, tennis (former Maryland State Champion and member of the University of Pennsylvania tennis team), oldies music, studying religion, singing, theater, and travel. He lives in Baltimore, Maryland with his wife and cocker spaniel. They have four children.
Andrew F. Kolker, MD is a comprehensive ophthalmologist who practices in Clinton, Maryland.
He received his undergraduate degree from University of Pennsylvania, where he graduated summa cum laude with a BA in English. He completed his post-baccalaureate pre-medical training at Johns Hopkins University and received his medical degree from Sackler School of Medicine in Tel Aviv, Israel. He completed his internship at Maryland General Hospital and his ophthalmology residency at The George Washington University.
In his free time, Dr. Kolker enjoys creative writing, listening to music, and playing drums and guitar. Tennis is also a passion of his and, as an undergraduate, he was a 4-year varsity tennis letter winner and was co-captain of the team during his senior year.
Following college, Dr. Kolker played tennis professionally, earning a world ranking in singles and doubles. He lives with his wife, Grace, in Washington, DC.
About the Authors
Foreword by David L. Guyton, MD
Chapter 1 Practical Optics
Goal of Refraction
Six Principles of Refraction
Snellen Visual Acuity
Spherical Refractive Errors
Four Points About Correcting Presbyopia With an Add
Progressive Addition Lenses
Two Formulas: Spherical Equivalent and
Plus-Minus Cylinder Conversion
Chapter 2 Subjective Refraction and Lens Prescription
Features of the Phoropter
Positioning the Patient
The Three Types of Refraction
The Four Steps of Subjective Refraction
The Adjustment Within Step 3
Instructing the Patient
When Straddling the Axis
Three Patient Concerns
Sixteen Tips for Accurate Subjective Refraction Results
Before Writing a Glasses Prescription
Show and Compare What You Plan to Give—Always!
Additional Factors to Consider Prior to
Making a Prescription Change
Subjective Refraction Over Current Lenses
Using the Trial Frame
Chapter 3 Case Studies
Special Considerations When Prescribing Glasses
How to Use the Manual Lensometer:
Plus Cylinder Method
How to Use the Manual Lensometer:
Minus Cylinder Method
Retinoscopy Primer: Plus Cylinder Method
Retinoscopy Primer: Minus Cylinder Method